Table 1

Nomenclature of the human malarias

Zoological nomenclatureAntiquated clinical nomenclatureObsolete clinical nomenclatureAccepted clinical nomenclaturePrognostic clinical identity
Plasmodium vivax Remittent or intermittent quotidian or tertian malariaBenign tertian malariaVivax malariaAcute pernicious a
Plasmodium falciparum Remittent or intermittent quotidian or tertian malariaMalignant tertian malariaFalciparum malariaAcute pernicious
Plasmodium malariae Quartan intermittent malariaQuartan malariaMalariae malariaChronic pernicious b
Plasmodium ovale c Remittent or intermittent quotidian or tertian malariaBenign tertian malariaOvale malariaUnknown but possibly acute pernicious
Plasmodium knowlesi None d NoneKnowlesi malariaAcute pernicious
  • a Recommended here, not yet accepted and applied.

  • b Causes irreversible kidney damage or splenomegaly with some chronic infection states.

  • c Described in the 1920s; it was synonymous with P. vivax up to that time.

  • d Not known as a human malaria until 2004, when it was confirmed as a zoonosis from macaques in Southeast Asia.