Table 4

Case reports since 1990 of severe and fatal vivax malaria not involving splenic rupture alone

Yr of publication (reference)Location g Diagnostic method a Parasite density b Patient age (yr)/sex c Falciparum ruled out?Diagnosis for coinfection?Syndrome d Therapy e Outcome
1992 (73)IndiaMNR3/MNoYesCSCQpDeath
1992 (73)IndiaMNR2/MNoYesCSCQpRecovery
1993 (74)India, USAMNR64/FNoYesARDSCQ, PQRecovery
1997 (75)Pakistan, SpainMNR38/MNoNoPDCQ, PQRecovery
1997 (76)VenezuelaM, P2.8%28/MYesNoALICQ, PQRecovery
1998 (77)India, USAM1.0%48/FNoNoARDSCQ, PQRecovery
1998 (77)Honduras, USAM0.8%62/MNoNoARDSQN, DX, PQRecovery
1999 (78)Colombia, USAM, P5%32/MYesNoARDSQNi, DX, PQRecovery
2001 (79)Papua New Guinea, USANRNR47/FNRNRARDSNRNR
2002 (80)PakistanM, R, PNR60/MYesNoCSQNiRecovery
2002 (81)IndiaM, RNR43/MYesNoST, HmQNRecovery
2003 (82)French Guiana, UKM, R<152/MYesYesARDSQN, CQ, MVRecovery
2003 (82)India, UKM, R, P<129/MYesYesST, JdCQ, PQRecovery
2004 (83)Afghanistan, USAM, P0.3–0.8%21/MYesNoARDSQN, MVRecovery
2004 (84)Indonesia, SingaporeM, R0.65% (mixed)48/FMixYesARDS, RF, SRm, MAcQN, DX, MVDeath
2004 (84)Indonesia, SingaporeM, R1.2%48/NRYesNoPEQN, DXRecovery
2005 (85)BrazilM, RNR43/FYesYesST, ARDSAR, CQ, PQRecovery
2006 (86)IndiaM, RNR12/MYesNoCSARiRecovery
2006 (86)IndiaM, RNR12/MYesNoCSARiRecovery
2006 (87)TurkeyM0.6%4/MNoNoCSCQ, PQRecovery
2006 (88)Uganda, USAM, P1.0%50/MYesNoPEQN, DXRecovery
2007 (89)Afghanistan, USAM, PNR21/MYesYesARDS, SRQNi, DX, SIRecovery
2007 (90)South KoreaM, R, PNR21/MYesNoSAMCQ, PQRecovery
2007 (90)South KoreaM, R, PNR33/MYesNoSAMCQ, PQRecovery
2007 (91)Pakistan, UKM, R, P3%59/MYesNoSAM, ARDSCQ, PQRecovery
2007 (92)India, UKM, P0.3%69/MYesNoARDSCQRecovery
2007 (93)IndiaM, R<0.1%28/FYesNoARDSARiRecovery
2008 (94)IndiaM, RNRAdult/MYesNoCSCQRecovery
2008 (94)IndiaM, RNRAdult/MYesNoCSCQRecovery
2008 (94)IndiaM, RNRAdult/MYesNoCSCQRecovery
2008 (95)BrazilM, PMarrow14/NRYesNoST, SmCQ, PQRecovery
2008 (96)Afghanistan, USAMNRNR/MNoNoARDSNRRecovery
2008 (97)VenezuelaM2,00029/MNoYesST, SAM, HNCQ, PQRecovery
2008 (98)India, UKM, R, P<1.0%63/MYesNoALIQN, CQ, PQRecovery
2009 (99)IndiaM, R, P2,8004/FYesYesST, HmARp, MQ, PQRecovery
2009 (100)IndiaM, R, P>120,00019/FYesYesARDSCQDeath
2009 (101)IndiaM, RNR42/FYesNoARDSARiRecovery
2009 (102)IndiaM, R, PNR19/FYesYesCSARi, QNiRecovery
2009 (103)IndiaMNR1/NRNoNoCSQNiRecovery
2009 (103)IndiaMNR5/NRNoNoST, HmQNiRecovery f
2009 (104)South KoreaM, PNR27/FYesNoMcCQRecovery
2010 (105)IndiaM, RNR42/MYesNoARDSCQ, MVRecovery
2010 (105)IndiaM, RNR36/MYesNoARDSCQ, MVRecovery
2010 (105)IndiaM, RNR15/MYesNoARDSCQ, MVRecovery
2010 (106)BrazilMNR16/MNoYesSRmARi, CQ, PQRecovery
2010 (107)IndiaNRNRChild/FNoNoST, HmNRNR
2010 (107)IndiaNRNRChild/FNoNoST, HmNRNR
2011 (108)IndiaM, RNR7/FYesNoAGNRxRecovery
2012 (109)IndiaM, R2%29/FYesNoAKI
  • a M, microscopy; R, rapid diagnostic test; P, PCR; NR, no data/not reported.

  • b Reported as % of red blood cells infected or number of parasites/μl of blood.

  • c M, male; F, female.

  • d ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; AGN, acute glomerulonephritis; AKI, acute kidney injury; ALI, acute lung injury; CS, cerebral syndrome (coma or seizures); Hm, hemorrhage; HN, hydronephrosis; Jd, jaundice; MAc, metabolic acidosis; Mc, myocarditis; PD, pulmonary distress; PE, pulmonary edema; RF, renal failure; SAM, shock or algid malaria; Sm, splenomegaly; SR, spleen rupture; SRm, severe rhabdomyolysis; ST, severe thrombocytopenia.

  • e QN(i or p), quinine (intravenous or parenteral); DX, oral doxycycline; CQ(p), chloroquine (parenteral); AR(i or p), an artemisinin (intravenous or parenteral); MQ, mefloquine; PQ, oral primaquine; MV, mechanical ventilation.

  • f Recovery with sequelae.

  • g Where two locations are listed, the first is the site of infection and the second is the site of treatment and reporting.