Table 5

Summary of case series of severe vivax malaria a

Yr of publication (reference)LocationCase selectionNo. of casesAgesDiagnosticsNo. of cases with parasitemia of >100,000/μlDominant syndromesNo. of fatal cases
2004 (110)South KoreaRetinal injury522–31 yrM,P1RI0
2005 (111)IndiaAll severe, adult1117–53 yrM, R, P0CS, ARDS, RF, Jd2
2008 (112)ColombiaNeonatal5<35 daysMNRSMA0
2009 (113)IndiaAll severe, adult4018–60 yrM, R, P0Jd, RF, SMA, MOD2
2010 (114)IranST11NRNRNRSTNR
2010 (115)BrazilAll severe, all ages171 mo–60 yrM, P0SMA, Jd, RF1
2011 (116)IndiaPulmonary4NRM, RNRSMA, ARDS4
2012 (117)IndiaKidney injury95 children, 4 adultsMNRAKINR
2012 (118)IndiaKidney injury25NRMNRAKI, RF, CS, SAM, RD, SMA, ARDS3
2012 (119)BrazilAutopsy series178–88 yrPNRLE, SR, ARDS, MOD13
  • a NR, not reported/no data; M, microscopy; R, rapid diagnostic test; P, PCR; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; AKI, acute kidney injury; CS, cerebral syndrome (coma or seizures); Jd, jaundice; MOD, multiple organ dysfunction; LE, lung edema; RF, renal failure; RI, retinal injury; SMA, severe malarial anemia; SR, spleen rupture; ST, severe thrombocytopenia.