Table 2

Highly virulent and multiresistant worldwide disseminated clones

CloneSpeciesAntibiotic resistanceVirulenceOrigin (yr)Reference(s)
CC17 E. faecalis β-Lactams, quinolones, glycopeptidesPutative pathogenicity island; toxin EspUSA (1982) 206, 208
PMEN1 (Spain23FST81) S. pneumoniae β-Lactams, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones, macrolides blp bacteriocin locusSpain (1970) 209, 210
ST131 (O25:H4) E. coli β-Lactams, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides vagC-vagD Calgary, Canada (2000) 215
Liverpool epidemic P. aeruginosa β-Lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosidesUpregulation of MexAB-OprM; quorum-sensing systemUK (1988) 97, 98
NAP1/027 C. difficile QuinolonesHyperproduction of toxins TcdA and TcdB; protease Cwp84, the high-molecular-wt S-layer protein, and fibronectin-binding protein Fbp68North America, Europe 217
BVE E. faecalis β-Lactams, glycopeptidesPutative pathogenicity islandUSA (mid-1980) 218
USA300 S. aureus β-Lactams (methicillin)Toxins (PVL), adhesins, enzymes, and immunomodulatorsUSA 219
ST175 P. aeruginosa β-Lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosidesAmpR-activating mutationsEurope 203, 221