Table 2

Human illnesses caused by or associated with superantigens

Human illnessesAssociated superantigen(s) (reference[s])
Staphylococcal menstrual TSSTSST-1 (3, 9, 48)
Staphylococcal nonmenstrual TSSPrimarily TSST-1, SEB, SEC (145, 200, 327)
    Soft tissue infection associatedPrimarily TSST-1, SEB, SEC (145, 200, 327)
    Postrespiratory viralPrimarily TSST-1 but also SEB, SEC, and SE-l X (5, 55, 152, 154)
    Purpura fulminansPrimarily TSST-1, SEB, SEC (154, 155)
    Extreme pyrexiaAny (156)
    Recalcitrant erythematous desquamating syndrome in AIDSAny (153)
    AnaphylacticTSST-1
    Kawasaki-likeTSST-1, SEB, SEC (328 332)
    Scleroderma-like
    Acute-onset rheumatoid arthritis
    Neonatal exanthematousTSST-1 (333, 334)
Streptococcal illnesses
    Scarlatina and scarlet feverSPEs (97)
    ErysipleasSPEs
    Severe invasive disease without hypotensionSPEs (199)
    TSS with or without necrotizing fasciitis/myositisSPE A and C (19, 20, 64, 92, 211, 213, 218, 219, 224, 335), SPE B (218, 224, 335, 336), others (67, 199)
    Purpura fulminansAny (337)
    Kawasaki-likeAny (338)
Staphylococcal food poisoningSEs (95, 339)
Guttate psoriasisSPEs (23, 284)
Atopic dermatitisAny (46)
Severe nasal polyposisAny staphylococcal (340)
Obsessive compulsive disorder and other nervous system disordersSPEs (286)
Acute rheumatic feverSPEs (67, 88, 221)
Acute glomerulonephritisSPE B (88, 288 290, 341)
Perineal erythemaAny staphylococcal (342)
Desquamative inflammatory vaginitisAny staphylococcal (326)
Sudden infant death syndromeAny (343, 344)