Table 1

Percentage of protein bound drug in plasma for anti-infective drug classes a

Drug% PB (mean ± SD or range)
Antimicrobials
    Amoxicillin18
    Amikacin4 ± 8
    Azithromycin7–50 b
    Cefazolin89 ± 2
    Cefdinir89
    Cefixime67 ± 1
    Ceftazidime21 ± 6
    Cefuroxime33 ± 6
    Cephalexin14 ± 3
    Cefepime16–19
    Ceftriaxone83–96 b
    Ciprofloxacin40
    Clarithromycin42–50
    Clindamycin93.6 ± 0.2
    Dapsone73 ± 1
    Daptomycin92
    Doxycycline88 ± 5
    Ertapenem84–96 b
    Erythromycin84 ± 3
    FosfomycinNegligible
    Gentamicin<10
    Imipenem-cilastatinI, <20; C, ∼35
    Levofloxacin24–38
    Linezolid31
    Minocycline76
    Moxifloxacin39.4 ± 2.4
    Nitrofurantoin62 ± 4
    Rifampin60–90
    Sulfamethoxazole53 ± 5
    Telithromycin70
    Tigecycline71–89
    Trimethoprim37 ± 5
    Vancomycin30 ± 11
Antivirals
    Acyclovir15 ± 4
    Atazanavir86
    Cidofovir<6
    Darunavir95
    Didanosine<5
    Efavirenz99.5–99.75
    Ganciclovir1–2
    Emtricitabine<4
    Foscarnet14–17
    Lopinavir98–99
    Maraviroc76
    Raltegravir83
    Ribavirin0
    Ritonavir98–99
    Tenofovir<1
    Valacyclovir13.5–17.9
    Zidovudine<25
Antifungals
    Amphotericin B>90
    Caspofungin96.5
    Fluconazole11 ± 1
    Itraconazole99.8
    Micafungin99
    Posaconazole98
    Voriconazole58
Atypical
    ChloroquineS, 66.6 ± 3.3; R, 42.7 ± 2.1
    Ethambutol6–30
    Albendazole70
    Hydroxychloroquine45 ± 3
    IsoniazidNegligible
    Mefloquine98.2
    Metronidazole11 ± 3
    Pyrazinamide10
  • a Protein binding values reported are taken from the same reference (10). % PB, percentage of protein-bound drug in plasma for anti-infective drug classes; I, imipenem; C, cilastatin; S, S isomer; R, R isomer.

  • b Concentration-dependent binding.