Table 2

Summary of clinical microdialysis studies performed with antimicrobials

Drug(s)Subject groupTissue(s)No. of subjectsCollection period (h)Dosage(s) a Reference
β-Lactams
    CefaclorHealthy volunteersMuscle125.5Single dose, various doses* 70
    CefazolinAortic valve replacementMuscle, subcutaneous7122 doses, 4 and 2 g 71
    CefpiromeHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous128Single dose, 2 g 72
    CefpiromeSepsis and healthy controlsSubcutaneous204Single dose, 2 g 73
    Cefpirome, cefodizimeHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous65Single dose, 2 g 74
    Cefpodoxime, cefiximeHealthy volunteersMuscle68Single doses, 400 mg each 75
    CefuroximeMorbidly obese, abdominal surgeryMuscle, subcutaneous66Single dose, 1.5 g 76
    CefuroximeCardiac surgeryMuscle96Multiple dosing, various doses** 77
    CeftobiproleHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous120–12, 16, 24Single dose, 0.5 g 78
    DoripenemHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous68Single dose, 0.5 g 79
    ErtapenemHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous612Single dose, 1 g 7
    ImipenemCritically illMuscle, subcutaneous118Single and multiple dosing, 500 mg 3 or 4 times daily 80
    MeropenemAcute brain injuryBrain27Multiple doses, 1 g 3 times daily 81
    MeropenemSeptic shockPeritoneal fluid672 1-g doses 82
    MeropenemPneumoniaLung78Single dose, 1 g 83
    PiperacillinAortic valve replacementMuscle, subcutaneous64Single dose, 4 g 84
    PiperacillinPneumoniaLung58Single dose, 4 g 85
Aminoglycosides
    GentamicinHealthy volunteersSubcutaneous76Single dose, 240 mg 86
Macrolides-ketolides
    ClarithromycinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous68250 mg (single dose) and 500 mg twice daily 87
    TelithromcyinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous108Single dose, 800 mg orally 88
Fluoroquinolones
    CiprofloxacinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous88Single dose, 200 mg 89
    CiprofloxacinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous812Single doses, 400 mg (i.v.) or 500 mg (oral) 90
    CiprofloxacinObese and lean subjectsMuscle, subcutaneous246Single dose, 2.85 mg/kg of body wt 91
    CiprofloxacinDiabeticsFoot lesion, subcutaneous65Single dose, 200 mg 92
    GemifloxacinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous1210Single dose, 320 mg 93
    LevofloxacinCardiac surgeryLung108Single dose, 500 mg 94
    LevofloxacinCardiac surgeryLung68Single dose, 500 mg 95
    MoxifloxacinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous1312Single dose, 400 mg 46
Oxazolidinones
    LinezolidSepsis or septic shockMuscle, subcutaneous128Single and multiple doses, 600 mg every 12 h 96
    LinezolidHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous108Single and multiple doses, 600 mg twice daily 97
    LinezolidHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous98Multiple doses, 600 mg twice daily 98
    TedizolidHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous1212Single dose, 600 mg 99
Lipopeptides
    DaptomycinDiabetic and healthy controlsSubcutaneous1224Single, 4 mg/kg 100
Miscellaneous
    FosfomycinHealthy volunteersMuscle, subcutaneous68Single, 4 or 8 g 101
    MetronidazoleGynecologicalMuscle610Single, 500 mg 102
  • a i.v., intravenous. *, modified release, 500 and 750 mg; immediate release, 500 mg. **, cefuroxime, 3 g i.v. with anesthesia induction, then 1.5 g i.v. after cardiopulmonary bypass with protamine sulfate, and 1.5 g i.v. 8 h after surgery.